Liddell Hart also stated that study of Sherman's campaigns had contributed significantly to his own "theory of strategy and tactics in mechanized warfare", which had in turn influenced Heinz Guderian's doctrine of Blitzkrieg and Rommel's use of tanks during the Second World War. As Sheridan left Virginia's Shenandoah Valley ablaze, Union general William T. Sherman implemented hard-war policies in the Deep South with his "March to the Sea." William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. His vision of hard war brought the Confederacy to its knees, … Write a 1000-1500-word essay addressing each of the following points. Sherman’s army burned much of Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. In his campaign through Georgia he implemented his total war strategy, which included speedily advancing through Georgia to the Atlantic at any cost, something he called hard war. sets out the context/background of your argument; introduces the theoretical perspectives you will be using; may define key terms (alternatively you can do the work of defining terms in the second paragraph); sets out your thesis statement/line of argument/central contention; and. See, for instance, Grimsley, pp. General Sherman's record as a tactician was mixed, and his military legacy rests primarily on his command of logistics and on his brilliance as a strategist. Grimsley cited a letter from Sherman to Grant… After serving during the Mexican War of 1846–1848, he resigned his commission in 1853. He engages notable Civil War historians . Sherman’s March represented an evolution of the broader Union policies of “hard war.” DAVID EVANS, historian and author of "Sherman's Horsemen" At the time, Sherman's decision to abandon his line of communications and cast off for the Georgia coast … . Sherman’s tactics along with those used by Union cavalry commander Philip Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley are seen as the first use of modern total warfare. (A) Sherman's hard war strategy was to conduct the Norths campaign as a war of conquest and employ a scorched earth tactic to break the rebellion. William T. Sherman, a major-general for the United States Army during the Civil War, wrote the letter to General Henry Halleck, who was in Washington D.C. at the time. arguing that the Meridian campaign holds a greater significance in the development of Sherman's 'hard war' strategy than has been previously admitted. Sherman’s March to the Sea Major General William Tecumseh Sherman was a contradiction embodied. He eliminated Atlanta's war making potential and brought sheer destruction to Georgia, then offered generous surrender terms. Total War in the Civil War. This means two pages of content, which requires clear and focused writing. 712–714, 727–729. The author's main theme is the development by Sherman of his "hard war" strategy and the destruction of the enemy's capacity to make war by destroying his economic base and his support among the population. Liddell Hart credited Sherman with mastery of maneuver warfare (also known as the "indirect … Be sure to completely answer all the questions for each bullet point. . Mark Grimsley described Sherman’s Savannah campaign in The Hard Hand of War. Atlanta was devastated. Dec. 11, 1872 deposition, Mixed Commission, XIV, 91, quoted in Marion B. Lucas, William T. Sherman - Index / Quick Reference, William T. Sherman - Autobiography, Memoirs, and Correspondence, https://CivilWarWiki.net/w/index.php?title=William_T._Sherman_-_Strategies&oldid=2744. His father died while William was still a boy and after his father’s death, he was raised by a family friend, attorney Thomas Ewing. Like Grant, Sherman was convinced that the Confederacy's strategic, economic, and psychological ability to wage further war needed to be definitively crushed if the fighting were to end. Liddell Hart credited Sherman with mastery of maneuver warfare (also known as the "indirect approach"), as demonstrated by his series of turning movements against Johnston during the Atlanta Campaign. Submit an electronic copy in the assignment drop box by the due date. Step-by-step answer ESSAY GUIDELINES -: Write a 1000-1500-word essay addressing each of the following points. Sherman’s army burned much of Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. The Army destroyed railroads, farms, and houses- gobbling up  food and confiscating jewelry looted from civilians. This page was last modified on 18 March 2009, at 20:55. “Sherman’s strategy is the art of war employed by the unsuccessful,” Signal declared. To Sherman war is hell and he demonstrated that he had every intention of wreaking havoc upon the southern states. President Lincoln and Generals Sherman and Grant embraced a “hard war-soft peace” philosophy by the end of the war, with General Sherman being its principal proponent; given that General Sherman was a war criminal, it makes sense that he supported such brutal policy. To them, Sherman's devastating march through the South opened the way to the kind of warfare that culminated in World War II. Length: 1000-1500 words; answers must thoroughly address the prompts in a clear, concise manner. There should be two main sections, one for each bullet below. [11] Former U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara refers equivocally to the statement that "war is cruelty and you cannot refine it" in both the book Wilson's Ghost[12] and in his interview for the film The Fog of War. He became acquainted with the people and geography of the South when the U.S. Army stationed him in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina between 1840 and 1846. He engages notable Civil War historians . 200–202. His younger brother John served in the U.S. Senate. The essence of the Union’s hard war strategy is demonstrated in General William Tecumseh Sherman’s March to the Sea, a path of destruction across the State of Georgia principally from Atlanta to Savannah. What was General Sherman's "hard war," what was his "bold strategy" after taking Atlanta, and how did he justify his unconventional plan to Grant and Lincoln? What was General Sherman’s “hard war,” what was his “bold strategy” after taking Atlanta, and how did he justify his unconventional plan to Grant and Lincoln? The March to the Sea: Sherman’s Total War Strategy to Save the Union Depending on geography, William T Sherman has gone down in the annuals of history as either one of the most hated or most respected generals of the Civil War. Atlanta was devastated. We offer the services below for free on all orders; E-mail us: support@masterlynursingpapers.com. . arguing that the Meridian campaign holds a greater significance in the development of Sherman’s ‘hard war’ strategy than has been previously admitted. The damage done by Sherman was almost entirely limited to the destruction of much property. His siblings all enjoyed professional success. (C) Sherman moved deep into … A body containing several paragraphs, each of which will: (10%) Resources used as rationale for approaches and as sources of content, _____ 5. Sherman's greatest contribution to the war, the strategy of total warfare—endorsed by General Grant and President Lincoln—has been the subject of much controversy. For instance, Alabama-born Major Henry Hitchcock, who served in Sherman's staff, declared that "it is a terrible thing to consume and destroy the sustenance of thousands of people", but if the scorched earth strategy served "to paralyze their husbands and fathers who are fighting ... it is mercy in the end."[5]. “Sherman’s strategy is the art of war employed by the unsuccessful,” Signal declared. See, for instance, Grimsley, pp. The letter came towards the tail end of Sherman’s campaign in Georgia and his capture of Savannah, a “Christmas gift” for President Lincoln. [4] Consuming supplies, wrecking infrastructure, and undermining morale were Sherman's stated goals, and several of his Southern contemporaries noted this and commented on it. Sherman’s army burned much of Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment. These tactics definitely bended the common rules of war, but Sherman was willing to do this because he believed that it would bring his country back together. When the city council appealed to him to rescind that order, on the grounds that it would cause great hardship to women, children, the elderly, and others who bore no responsibility for the conduct of the war, Sherman sent a response in which he sought to articulate his conviction that a lasting peace would be possible only if the Union were restored, and that he was therefore prepared to do all he could do to quash the rebellion: Literary critic Edmund Wilson found in Sherman's Memoirs a fascinating and disturbing account of an "appetite for warfare" that "grows as it feeds on the South". The letter came towards the tail end of Sherman’s campaign in Georgia and his capture of Savannah, a “Christmas gift” for President Lincoln. His vision of hard war brought the Confederacy to its knees, but forestalled thousands of battlefield and civilian deaths. present a topic sentence or central idea supporting your thesis statement/line of argument/central contention; contain developing sentences which extend on or amplify the topic sentence; give evidence/examples/references that support/relate to your topic sentence; and, restates your thesis statement/line of argument/central contention; and. Though exact figures are not available, the loss of civilian life appears to have been very small. It futher discusses the change in strategy these men employed and point out a battle or campaign in which each man used their new strategy and how or if these strategies were successful. My guess is you're referring principally to Sherman's "March to the Sea" near the end of 1864, i.e., the last full year of the U.S. Civil War, in which this general led a vast Union army from Atlanta through northern Georgia and parts of South Carolina to Savannah on the Atlantic coast, effectively splitting the territory of the Confederacy. Step-by-step answer Avoid excessive use of quotations. Let's use Sherman's March to the Sea as a template to understand the reasoning. (A) Sherman's hard war strategy was to conduct the Norths campaign as a war of conquest and employ a scorched earth tactic to break the rebellion. summarises the points and evidence you provided to support your thesis. Sherman's advance through Georgia and South Carolina was characterized by widespread destruction of civilian supplies and infrastructure. General Sherman's record as a tactician was mixed, and his military legacy rests primarily on his command of logistics and on his brilliance as a strategist. What was General Sherman's "hard war," what was his "bold strategy" after taking Atlanta, and how did he justify his unconventional plan to Grant and Lincoln? Sherman graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1840. Like Grant, Sherman was convinced that the Confederacy's strategic, economic, and psychological ability to wage further war needed to be definitively crushed if the fighting were to end. After the fall of Atlanta in 1864, Sherman ordered the city's evacuation. Sherman's March to the Sea refers to a long stretch of devastating Union army movements that took place during the United States Civil War.In the fall of 1864, the Union General William Tecumseh ("Cump") Sherman took 60,000 men … explains how the essay will be organised (order of points). But the hard-war strategy left a legacy of bitterness that lasted for generations. Union General William T. Sherman led 60,000 soldiers on an approximately 300 mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. He eliminated Atlanta's war making potential and brought sheer destruction to Georgia, then offered generous surrender terms. -- Civil War History "With Sherman's Mississippi Campaign , Foster has contributed significantly to the literature on the Civil War's western theater. (20%) write paper in a scholarly manner The practice of bending rails around trees, leaving behind what came to be known as Sherman's neckties, made repairs difficult. “I wonder if the vengeance of heaven will not pursue such fiends!” Le Conte wrote of Sherman’s army. “Sherman’s strategy is the art of war employed by the unsuccessful,” Signal declared. This masterly campaign comprised a series of cat-and-mouse moves by the rival commanders. Sherman's hard war must have worked. Engraving depicting brutality of Union troops along the path to Savannah. The author's main theme is the development by Sherman of his "hard war" strategy and the destruction of the enemy's capacity to make war by destroying his economic base and his support among the population. Major General William Tecumseh Sherman was a contradiction embodied. 190–204; McPherson, pp. The essence of the Union’s hard war strategy is demonstrated in General William Tecumseh Sherman’s March to the Sea, a path of destruction across the State of Georgia principally from Atlanta to Savannah. American Civil War - American Civil War - Sherman’s Georgia campaigns and total war: Meanwhile, Sherman was pushing off toward Atlanta from Dalton, Georgia, on May 7, 1864, with 110,123 men against Johnston’s 55,000. Grimsley cited a letter from Sherman to Grant… The solution descibes the new type of warfare pursued by William T. Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant. The influential 20th-century British military historian and theorist B. H. Liddell Hart ranked Sherman as one of the most important strategists in the annals of war, along with Scipio Africanus, Belisarius, Napoleon Bonaparte, T. E. Lawrence, and Erwin Rommel. Although looting was officially forbidden, historians disagree on how well this regulation was enforced. Sherman himself stated that "[i]f I had made up my mind to burn Columbia I would have burnt it with no more feeling than I would a common prairie dog village; but I did not do it . [1] Another WWII-era student of Liddell Hart's writings about Sherman was George S. Patton, who "'spent a long vacation studying Sherman's campaigns on the ground in Georgia and the Carolinas, with the aid of [LH's] book,'" and later "'carried out his [bold] plans, in super-Sherman style.'"[2]. (4%) Format includes title page, body of paper, & reference page, with pages numbered, No need to gamble yet we've got you covered. Many Southerners reviled his “scorched earth” tactics, while others saw them as necessary to the end of the war. Nine successive defensive positions were taken up by Johnston. Make sure to cite using the APA writing style for the essay. Confederate soldiers were answering the pleas from their womenfolk and deserting in droves to head back to the homestead...and then the War came to an end just a couple of months later. . Sherman’s Total War tactic was his way of ending a war faster than normal. Sherman's strategy of total war brought the war home to many in the Deep South. The severity of the destructive acts by Union troops was significantly greater in South Carolina than in Georgia or North Carolina. Called total war, it … Liddell Hart, "Notes on Two Discussions with Patton, 1944," Feb. 20, 1948, GSP Papers, box 6, USMA Library. Its importance rested more in its impact on Sherman’s evolving policy toward Southern civilians and the Union strategy to win the war than on immediate military ramifications in Mississippi. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which bullet you are addressing in that section of your paper. [3] The speed and efficiency of the destruction by Sherman's army was remarkable. Liddell Hart, foreword to the Indiana University Press's edition of Sherman's. Sherman's concept of total war was a continuation of the tradition of the "nation at arms" established by the French Revolution. His older brother Charles became a federal judge. "[7] Historian James M. McPherson has concluded that: In this connection, it is noteworthy that Sherman and his subordinates (particularly John A. Logan) took steps to protect Raleigh, North Carolina, from acts of revenge after the assassination of President Lincoln.[9]. Sherman’s Tactics: Strategy and Total War Destruction of a Railroad by the Union Army in Georgia (1864). Accusations that civilians were targeted and war crimes were committed on the march have made Sherman a controversial figure to this day, particularly in the South. The author's main theme is the development by Sherman of his "hard war" strategy and the destruction of the enemy's capacity to make war by destroying his economic base and his support among the population. This appears to have been a consequence of the animosity among both Union soldiers and officers to the state that they regarded as the "cockpit of secession". Therefore, he believed that the North had to conduct its campaign as a war of conquest and employ scorched earthtactics to break the backbone of the rebellion, which he called "hard war". The results were his March to the sea which ultimately broke the confederates. William T. Sherman, a major-general for the United States Army during the Civil War, wrote the letter to General Henry Halleck, who was in Washington D.C. at the time. The results were his March to the sea which ultimately broke the confederates. (20%) Write the Paper in a scholarly manner Sherman himself downplayed his role in conducting total war, often saying that he was simply carrying out orders as best he could in order to fulfill his part of Grant's master plan for ending the war. Mark Grimsley described Sherman’s Savannah campaign in The Hard Hand of War. The cover page and reference page in correct APA do not count towards the minimum word amount. Therefore, he believed that the North had to conduct its campaign as a war of conquest and employ scorched earth tactics to break the backbone of the rebellion, which he called "hard war". On the other hand, when comparing Sherman's scorched earth campaigns to the actions of the British Army during the Second Boer War (1899–1902)—another war in which civilians were targeted because of their central role in sustaining an armed resistance—South African historian Hermann Giliomee declares that it "looks as if Sherman struck a better balance than the British commanders between severity and restraint in taking actions proportional to legitimate needs". . [6] One of the most serious accusations against Sherman was that he allowed his troops to burn the city of Columbia. Sherman's advance through Georgia and South Carolina was characterized by widespread destruction of civilian supplies and infrastructure. (C) Sherman moved deep into enemy territory without supply lines, but he stood with confidence. Replacing Grant as the overall commander in the West in March 1864, Sherman vigorously implemented the Union’s then-prevailing “hard war” military strategy, in the process making his name infamous to generations of Southerners. This page has been accessed 17,354 times. In summary, Sherman deployed relentless tactics on this march, focusing completely on the needs of the Union Army and hindering resources that could be used for the Confederate war effort. Support your ideas with at least three (3) sources using citations in your essay. Alth… [13] The admiration of scholars such as Victor Davis Hanson, Basil Liddell Hart, Lloyd Lewis, and John F. Marszalek for General Sherman owes much to what they see as an approach to the exigencies of modern armed conflict that was both effective and principled. And his brother Hoyt was a successfu… However, the Civil War was dragging on and General William Tecumseh Sherman was determined to finally end the fighting. Atlanta was devastated. William Tecumseh Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, Ohio, to Charles Robert Sherman, a successful lawyer. The American Civil War lasted four years, from 1861 to 1865. The expedition demonstrated to Sherman and other Federal commanders how to conduct “hard war” successfully. General Sherman’s Unorthodox Tactics that Ended the Civil War Scorched farms, slaughtered livestock, uprooted railway lines and cities set on fire was not typical battle strategy previously seen on American soil. The influential 20th century British military historian and theorist Basil Liddell Hart ranked Sherman as one of the most important strategists in the annals of war, along with Scipio Africanus, Belisarius, Napoleon Bonaparte, T. E. Lawrence, and Erwin Rommel. Hirshson, p. 393, quoting B.H. . On November 14, 1864, after the surrender of Atlanta, Georgia, Sherman promised Grant that he could "make Georgia howl." 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